Among them are the following:

Porthos (Port of Rotterdam CO2 Transport Hub and Offshore Storage), a joint venture of EBN, Gasunie, and the Port of Rotterdam Authority focused on capturing CO2 from local sources. A positive final investment decision was taken in mid-October 2023. The construction of the necessary infrastructure was scheduled to start in 2024, with the scheme expected to be operational from 2026.

The Porthos system for the transport and storage of CO2 consists of an onshore pipeline running from Botlek through the port area to a compressor station on the Maasvlakte (see map, right). From the compressor station, the CO2 pipeline goes to a platform about 20 km from the coast then to empty gas fields under the North Sea. The empty gas fields are situated in porous sandstone, more than 3 km beneath the seabed.

Most of the CO2 transport ‘backbone’ will be positioned in existing pipeline strips. Valve or connection locations are planned at ten strategic locations to allow companies in the port to bring their captured CO2 into the system. “Thanks to Porthos, 2.5 million tonnes of CO2 a year [over 15 years] will soon be captured and permanently stored,” says the Port of Rotterdam Authority. “CO2 storage is therefore a meaningful measure that will allow industry to contribute to the Dutch climate goals.”

Porthos has been recognised by the EU as a Project of Common Interest.

The Port of Rotterdam is also also expected to play an important role in the Aramis CCS project, a joint effort by TotalEnergies, Shell, EBN and Gasunie that aims to offer a route to decarbonisation for hard-to-abate industries across the Netherlands, Belgium, and France. Like Porthos it is named after one of The Three Musketeers and plans to sequester CO2 in depleted gas fields under the North Sea, with a “collection hub” in the Port of Rotterdam. Aramis, also a Project of Common Interest, says it hopes to “create synergies” with Porthos and to “collaborate as a loyal friend.”

National hydrogen network. The construction of the Dutch national hydrogen network began officially on 27 October 2023 in the port of Rotterdam. The network, which is open to all hydrogen suppliers and buyers, will soon be 1200 km long and it will provide five Dutch industrial clusters with access to green hydrogen.

The first section of more than 30 km will connect electrolyser capacity on Maasvlakte 2 to Shell Energy and Chemicals Park Rotterdam (formerly known as the Pernis refinery), replacing some of the grey H2 used in the refinery.

The first of four electrolysis plants planned for Maasvlakte 2 is now under construction. This 200 MW/60 000 kg/day facility, Shell’s Holland Hydrogen 1, will produce green hydrogen using electricity from offshore wind. First green hydrogen supply to Pernis is expected in 2025.

The proposed Delta Rhine Corridor will provide a connection to Germany.

Hollandse Kust Zuid is expected to be fully operational in 2024, the first of several offshore wind farms with HVDC cable landfall in the Port of Rotterdam area.

Power grid upgrade, by Tennet and Stedin, to ensure sufficient green power in the Rotterdam area (see map).

Above: Rotterdam grid upgrade (source: Port of Rotterdam Authority/ TenneT/Stedin)

Preparing for hydrogen imports, projects underway.

WarmtelinQ, waste heat pipeline, under construction. An underground pipeline from the port of Rotterdam to The Hague will provide heat to homes and businesses.

Distro Energy launched. Distro Energy, a “scale-up powered by the Port of Rotterdam Authority”, has developed an intelligent and fully automated trading platform that allows companies to trade the green energy they produce between themselves locally.

More shore power. Increased provision of shore power is helping to reduce emissions.